Micro(nanoplastics) in the marine environment: Current knowledge and gaps (Mendoza et al. 2018)
“The smaller the sizes of plastics are the higher the toxicity and physical damage.”

Fate and occurrence of micro(nano)plastics in soils: Knowledge gaps and possible risks (Hurley & Nizzetto, 2018)
“Regardless, soils in agricultural and urban areas are expected to represent major environmental reservoirs of micro(nano)plastics, possibly comprehensively larger than the marine one. Additionally, soils exhibit several potential exposure pathways for micro(nano)plastics to organism and human health, including contamination of groundwater aquifers.”

An overview of microplastic and nanoplastic pollution in agroecosystems (Ng et al. 2018)
“Based on limited evidence at this point and understanding that the lack of evidence of ecological impact from microplastic and nanoplastic in agroecosystems does not equate to the evidence of absence, we propose considerations for addressing the gaps in knowledge so that we can adequately safeguard world food supply.”

Nanoplastics in the Aquatic Environment (Mattsson et al. 2018)
“This chapter highlights recent findings concerning sources, degradation pathways, and ecotoxicity of the nanoparticles derived from plastic degradation in addition to those intentionally fabricated to their form in aquatic systems.”

Micro(nano)plastics: A threat to human health? (Revel et al. 2018)
“MPs/NPs could potentially induce: physical damages through particles itself, and biological stress through MPs/NPs alone or leaching of additives (inorganic and organic).”

What is a nanoplastic? (Gigault et al. 2018)
“We define nanoplastics as particles unintentionally produced (i.e. from the degradation and the manufacturing of the plastic objects) and presenting a colloidal behavior, within the size range from 1 to 1000 nm.”

Are There Nanoplastics in Your Personal Care Products? (Hernandez et al. 2017)
“This study confirms the (unexpected) presence of nanoplastics in personal care products containing polyethylene microbeads and highlights the need for further studies to characterize the release and distribution of nanoplastic litter in natural aquatic and soil environments.”

Reducing Uncertainty and Confronting Ignorance about the Possible Impacts of Weathering Plastic in the Marine Environment (Jahnke et al. 2017)
“Biofilms that form and grow on plastic affect weathering, vertical transport, toxicity, and uptake of plastic by marine organisms and have been underinvestigated. Laboratory studies, field monitoring, and models of the impact of weathering on plastic debris are needed to reduce uncertainty in hazard and risk assessments for known and suspected adverse effects. However, scientists and decision makers must also recognize that plastic in the oceans may have unanticipated effects about which we are currently ignorant. Possible impacts that are currently unknown can be confronted by vigilant monitoring of plastic in the oceans and discovery-oriented research related to the possible effects of weathering plastic.”

Effects of nanoplastics and microplastics on toxicity, bioaccumulation, and environmental fate of phenanthrene in fresh water (Ma et al. 2016)
“Within the five sizes particles we tested (from 50 nm to 10 μm), 50-nm NPs showed significant toxicity and physical damage to D. magna.”

Polycarbonate and polystyrene nanoplastic particles act as stressors to the innate immune system of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) (Greven et al. 2016)
“Exposure of neutrophils to PSNPs or PCNPs caused significant increases in degranulation of primary granules and neutrophil extracellular trap release compared to a nontreated control, whereas oxidative burst was less affected.”

(Nano)plastics in the environment – Sources, fates and effects (da Costa et al. 2016)
“Though their presence has been difficult to adequately ascertain, due to the inherent technical difficulties for isolating and quantifying them, there is an overall consensus that these are not only present in the environment – either directly released or as the result of weathering of larger fragments – but that they also pose a significant threat to the environment and human health, as well.”

Characterisation of nanoplastics during the degradation of polystyrene (Lambert & Wagner, 2016)
“The results clearly show an increase in the formation of nanoplastics over time.”

Nanoplastics in the Aquatic Environment. Critical Review (Koelmans et al. 2015)
“We conclude that hazards of nanoplastics are plausible yet unclear, which calls for a thorough evaluation of nanoplastic sources, fate and effects.”

Micro- and Nano-plastics and Human Health (Galloway, 2015)
“In this article, some of the most widely encountered plastics in everyday use are identified and their potential hazards listed.”

Ingestion of Nanoplastics and Microplastics by Pacific Oyster Larvae (Cole & Galloway, 2015)
“In conclusion, whil micro- and nanoplastics were readily ingested by oyster larvae, exposure to plastic concentrations exceeding those observed in the marine environment resulted in no measurable effects on the development or feeding capacity of the larvae over the duration of the study.”

Nanoplastic Affects Growth of S. obliquus and Reproduction of D. magna (Besseling et al. 2014)
“Nano-PS reduced population growth and reduced chlorophyll concentrations in the algae. Exposed Daphnia showed a reduced body size and severe alterations in reproduction. Numbers and body size of neonates were lower, while the number of neonate malformations among neonates rose to 68% of the individuals.”

Strong Sorption of PCBs to Nanoplastics, Microplastics, Carbon Nanotubes, and Fullerenes (Velzeboer et al. 2014)

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